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Given below is an overview of specialised facilities, diagnosis, treatments, invasive and non-invasive procedures and surgeries available in India. Please note that the High Commission neither recommends nor endorses any particular hospital or treatment. The write-up is to inform the readers about the general trends in healthcare facilities available in India.
Bone Marrow Transplant
Major hospitals in India have oncology units comprising surgical oncology, medical and radiation therapy as well as the crucial Bone Marrow Transplantation (BMT). The BMT unit with high pressure hipa filters has helped achieve a very high success rate in the various types of transplantation.
Cord Blood Transplant and Mismatched Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplant have been performed successfully, a feat that is remarkable and significant, considering the fact that the treatment costs one-tenth of what it does in the west. Special surgeons are available for individual organs. Plastic surgeons of repute provide treatment for head and neck cancer, breast cancer and other malignancies. Facilities offered include tele-therapy which includes simulation work stations to ensure high precision and safety during treatment at the 18 MV linear accelerator or telecobalt machines, brachy therapy and 3-D planning systems. In orthopaedics, the Ilizarov technique is practised for the treatment of limb deformities, limb shortening and disfiguration.
A new dimension of the medical field taking off in India is cosmetic surgery which utilises some of the latest techniques in corrective procedures. Some disfigurations corrected include hair restoration (hair implants, hair flaps, and scalp reductions), rhinoplasties (reshaping or recontouring of the nose), stalling of the aging process (face life, cosmetic eyelid surgery, brow lift, sub-metal lipectomy for double chin), demabrasions (sanding of the face,) otoplasty for protruding ears, chin and cheek enlargement, lip reductions, various types of breast surgery and reconstruction and liposuction.
Non-invasive surgical procedures like streotactic radiosurgery and radiotherapy for brain tumours are practised successfully.
Dialysis and Kidney Transplant
Common diseases like diabetes, hypertension and chronic glomerulo-nephritis can lead to permanent loss of renal functions - with dialysis and renal transplantation being the frequent outcome. Major hospitals in India like Holy Family Hospital, Jaslok Hospital, Apollo Hospital, Sir Ganga Ram Hospital, Batra Hospital, Bombay Hospital and Hinduja Hospital have departments of Nephrology and Organ Transplant equipped with the latest computerised dialysis machines, reverse osmosis water plant to provide pure and trace element-free water supply, as well as state-of-the-art facilities in the operating rooms and Transplant Intensive Care Units.
For those who need renal replacement therapy, services like Hemodialysis, Chronic Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis (CAPD) and Transplantation are also available. In addition to the basic haemodialysis facilities, the patients' requirements for other modalities of treatment such as Continuous Arterio-Venous Haemofilteration (CAVH), Continuous Veno-Venous Haemofilteration (CVVH), Continuous Cycler-Assisted Peritioneal Dialysis (CCPD) are also available. Patients can also avail of the bicarbonate dialysis facility at these centres. Round the clock service is available at these hospitals for the critically ill patients in the intensive care units who may need fluid, electrolyte management and renal supportive therapy.
Gynaecology & Obstetrics
Leading Indian hospitals with gynaecology departments and women's hospitals have facilities for the prevention and early detection of gynaecological disorders. Many hospitals have women check-up programmes designed to detect the earliest signs of disorders of the breast and the organs of reproduction as well as catering to the contraceptive needs of women. A mammogram, an ultrasound of the pelvis and a pap-smear of the cervix are an integral part of any good medical check-up for women. Specialist medical as well as surgical care is available for all types of gynaecological problems like menstrual abnormalities, prolapse, fibroids and other tumours of the uterus and ovaries, tubal recanalisation by microsurgery and care of the infertile couple. State-of-the-art gynaecological surgery is available with world class equipment and expertise using minimally invasive techniques.
Ectopic pregnancies, overian cysts and tumours, fibroids endometrosis, tubal blocks and even hysterectomies can be performed laproscopically. Hospitals like Apollo have state-of-the-art IVF labs backed by highly experienced doctors who have been involved in the field of infertility and assisted Reproductive Technologies (ART). A full range of diagnostic procedures are available for infertile couples. Treatment for the disorders of ovulation, controlled ovarian stimulation, controlled ovarian stimulation, Intra-Utrine Insemination (IUI), Intra-Fallopian Tubal Insemination (IFI), In Vitro Fertilization (VF) and Gamete Intra-Fallopian Transfer (GIFT), Embryo Transfer (ET), Zygote Intra-Fallopian Transfer (ZIFT), sperm donation, freezing egg/oocyte donation, replacement of frozen embryos, full range of treatment of male infertility including micro-manipulation technology - Intra Cytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI) and surrogacy. The emphasis is on optimizing each couple's chance of achieving a pregnancy by combining the best scientific and medical practice with the highest standard of care.
Joint Replacement Surgery
Shoulder/hip replacement and bilateral knee replacement surgery using the most advanced keyhole or endosopic surgery and anthroscopy is done at several hospitals in India including the Apollo Hospital, Sir Ganga Ram Hospital and Holy Family Hospital in Delhi, Bombay Hospital, Leelavati and Hinduja Hospital in Mumbai and the Madras Institute of Orthoepaedics and Trauma Sciences. Some hospitals like Apollo in Delhi have Operation Theatres with Laminar Air Flow System which compares with the best in the West.
Neurosurgery & Trauma Surgery
Some routine procedures performed with excellent results are replacement arthroplasties, diagnostic and operative arthoscopy, spinal surgeries including. Harrington Rod Instrumentation for scoliosis, corrective and reconstructive procedure for poliomyelitis and cerebral palsy, micro-cascular surgical procedures and automated percutanneous lumbar discectomy.
In addition, the advanced Luque technique is employed for the correction of complex scoliosis, and decompression and stabilisation of fractures of dorsal and lumbar spine with paraplegia, by neurosurgeons with excellent training and background.
Many super-speciality hospitals in India like AIIMS, Manipal Hospital, Ram Manohar Lohia Hospital, Vidya Sagar Institute of Mental Health and Neuro Sciences, Bombay Hospital, Jaslok Hospital, Nizam Institute of Mental Health and Neuro Sciences and Apollo Hispitals have advanced faculities devoted to the treatment of the entire renge of brain and spinal disorders with highly experienced neurosurgenons, neurologists, neuro-anaesthetists and neuro-radilogists. Treatment of intra- and juxta-cranial, spinal tumours and vascular malformations, aneurysms and thrombolysis for brain attacks are done at these centres. Hospitals like Apollo employ state-of-the-art LINAC-based stereotactic radiosurgery system outside the USA. The Clinac 6000SR Linear Accelerator with XKNIFE system is a highly sophisticated computer-driven technology used for removal of appropriately selected brain tumours, arteriovenous malformations and other abnormalities.
Leading hospitals in India are well equipped to detect and treat bone loss in its earliest states, so as to prevent the disease or lessen its impact. Doctors in leading hospitals have the expertise for the diagnosis and treatment of osteoporosis that involves an objective, quantifiable measurement of the patient's bone mass or bone density. Advanced technology called the DXA for bone densitometry is available. During a comprehensive bone valuation with DXA, the patient lies comfortably still on a padded table while the DXA unit scans one or more areas, usually the fractured spine or the hip. The entire process takes only minutes to scan depending on the number of sites scanned. It involved no injections or invasive procedures and the patient remains fully clothed.
Preventive Health Care
Preventive health care has been introduced for the first time in the country by Apollo Hospitals with hospitals in the metros of Hyderabad, Chennai and Delhi. The professional chain also pioneered the concept of lifestyle clincs, established the first organ registry in the country and introduced non-invasive technique for treatment of lesions and tumours of the brain - Stereotactic Radio Surgery and Radio therapy in the country. It recently installed a state of the art Cobalt Unit. Apollo Heart Hospital provides a complete network for cardiac patients. It has a total bed capacity of 500 beds distributed between Apollo Chennai, Hyderabad and Delhi. Apollo is linked to the Mayo Clinic and the Minneapolis Heart Institute, a premier heart institute led by the team of doctors who pioneered the Jarvik artifical heart.
Highest international quality of eye care for cornea, cataract, squint and glaucoma is available in over 40 centres all over India. Apollo Hospital, Gurunanak Eye Centre, Dr. Rajindra Prasad Centre For Ophthalmic Sciences and Mohan Eye Centre in Delhi, Shankar Naytralaya in Chennai, L. V. Prasad hospital in Hyderabad are just some of the more popular eye care hospitals. The No Stitch Cataract Surgery with the most modern way of removing cataract through the use of Phacoemulsification procedure is also being performed in India. Facilities for PRK, myopia and astigmatism are now available in almost all parts of the country. Hyperopics and LASIK are available and even supra hard cataracts are treated using just 1 mm incision instead of the 3 mm incision size.
Removal of the gall bladder, the spleen, the bowel and other organs like the adrenals, an operation for prolapse rectum and hiatus hernia repair have become fairly commonplace in almost all the major speciality hospitals in India. Experts are easily available and accessible and high intensive care treatment is ensured.
Cardiac care has become a speciality in India with institutions like the Escorts Heart Institute and Research Centre, All India Institute of Medical Sciences and Apollo Hospital becoming names to reckon with. They combine the latest innovations in medical electronics with unmatched expertise in leading cardiologists and cardo-thoracic surgeons. These centres have the distinction of providing comprehensive cardiac care spanning from basic facilities in preventive cardiology to the most sophisticated curative technology. They also specialise in offering surgery to high risk patients with the introduction of innovative techniques like minimally invasive and robotic surgery.
Renowned Indian hospitals like Apollo and Escorts Heart Institute are equipped to handle all phases of heart diseases from the elementary to the latest clinical procedures like interventional cardiac catherisation and surgical cardiac transplants.
Leading heart centres like The Escorts Heart Institute have Cardiac Care Units with sophisticated equipment and investigative facilities like Echocardiography with coloured Doppler, Nuclear Scanning and Coronary Angiography. The Jayadeva Institute of Cardiology in Bangalore, the Cardiology Hospital in Kanpur, the Heart Hospital in Calicut and the Sree Sudihindra Medical Mission Hospital in Cochin are some hospitals in India devoted exclusively to cardiac treatment.
The Narayana Hrudulaya hospital in Bangalore is doing pioneering work in pediatric cardiac surgery.
Nuclear medicine is now commonplace. As it involves use of radioactive isotopes in very small doses in diagnosing and treatment of diseases, radioactive medicine injected or administered orally and the distribution in the organ is scanned using a Gamma camera. Various non-cardiac planar/SPECT studies for bone, thyroid, liver and lungs scanning functions are performed at specialised centres in India. Diagnostic imaging of the brain, stomach, kidneys, heart, adrenal glands as well as sites of occult infection with the help of sophisticated Gamma Camera with tomographic facilities linked to computer systems can also be performed at many of these centres.
Sveral superspeciality hospitals in India offer comprehensive Urological services to diagnose and treat stone disease, urological cancer, incontinence, infertility, impotency and other urinary difficulties. Advanced methods such as lithotripsy for treating kidney and ureteric stones without surgery are available with complementary methods of treating stones endoscopically. Advanced machines like the Lithostar obvert the need for anaesthesia in the treatment of kidney and ureteric stones. High tech facilities for the treatment of prostate, bladder cancers, urethral strictures are also available. Investigation and treatment facilities for impotence and male/female infertility exist with specialised facilities for pharmacotherapy, cavernosometry and cavernosography, in addition to doppler studies for the assessment of blood flow.